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  • 小小文档网 > 名人名言 > 英语名言 > 英语阅读理解猜词技巧和能力现状调查【完整版】

    英语阅读理解猜词技巧和能力现状调查【完整版】

    时间:2022-08-07 15:30:12来源:小小文档网本文已影响

    下面是小编为大家整理的英语阅读理解猜词技巧和能力现状调查【完整版】,供大家参考。希望对大家写作有帮助!

    英语阅读理解猜词技巧和能力现状调查【完整版】

    英语阅读理解猜词技巧和能力现状调查5篇

    第1篇: 英语阅读理解猜词技巧和能力现状调查

    语境猜词策略在英语阅读理解中的应用
    作者:黄文秀
    来源:《现代职业教育·职业培训》2017年第05期

            [摘 要] 英语阅读理解能力在英语学习及提升中至关重要,而阅读中遇到的生词总是学生的头等难题。部分学生一旦被生词卡住,就会自乱阵脚。语境猜词策略在英语阅读理解中是一种很实用的方法,但当下很多学生没有掌握该策略,在英语阅读理解中走了不少弯路。在敏锐捕捉当前现状的基础上,找出了当前语境猜词策略在英语阅读理解应用中面临的困境,并相应地提出了些许建议,希望能够对广大师生有所帮助。

            [关 键 词] 语境猜词策略;
    英语;
    阅读理解

            [中图分类号] G712 [文献标志码] A [文章编号] 2096-0603(2017)15-0092-01

            阅读理解在英语学习中很重要,而词汇理解又在阅读理解中占据着重要地位。语境猜词策略在它们之间架了一座桥,根据词汇理解文章,又依据全文理解单词,相得益彰,最终促进英语学习的进步。语境学生的猜词策略不仅可以提高阅读文章的速度,还能在一定程度上增加学生的词汇量,是提高英语水平的重要技巧之一。

            一、语境猜词策略在英语阅读理解中的应用现状

            语境理论是指将语言置于特定的环境、情境中进行研究、学习的理论。人们使用语言进行沟通与交流必然身处一定的环境中,无论是陈述、疑问,或是感叹,环境影响着人的思维,也就连带影响了表达思维的语言。基于这样的理论,结合特定的语言环境、情境,联系上下文开展英语学习是改革传统英语教学的一项有益尝试。[1]在阅读理解日益重要的今天,生词完全是学生的心头病。学生碰到生词不是跳过去就是,少数会采用语境猜词策略的学生中,真正掌握猜词技巧的屈指可数。这个现象严重制约了学生英语水平的提高。

            二、语境猜词策略在英语阅读理解应用中面临的挑战

            (一)学生在语境猜词时盲目瞎猜

    第2篇: 英语阅读理解猜词技巧和能力现状调查

    2007年高考备考阅读理解中的猜词技巧

    1. The ruler had been so cruel and dishonest that after the revolution she was

    banished. A few members of the Senate opposed this decision, but the majority voted that the ruler should leave the country forever.

    A. killed by stoning B. sent away

    C. imprisoned D. punished by whipping

    2. The prisoner seemed to relax but actually he was thinking hard, while his hand

    moved so slowly that the movement was imperceptible. It was only when the keys accidentally fell from the table that the guard suddenly realized that the prisoner’s hand had almost reached them.

    A. hardly noticeable B. heavy-handed

    C. not capable of fast or immediate action D. a matter of habit

    3. Mrs. Morgan’s son was intelligent and charming, but his continual extravagance

    made her wonder if she could continue to support him. Each month she was going deep into debt, attempting to pay for his expensive purchases.

    A. superior manner

    B. wastefulness or carelessness in spending money

    C. showing too great concern for current fashions

    D. insults to family or close friends

    4. Twelve-year-old Sally was an active girl, while her sister was quite sedate.

    A. pretty B. calm C. protective D. energetic

    5. I wanted to stay in New York, but my friend tried to dissuade me.

    A. deceive B. frighten C. talk out of it D. accompany

    6. Albert’s success after much effort and practice prove the value of persistence.

    A. time B. competition C. perseverance D. beginning again

    7. He felt very lonely; he had lived in Baltimore City for a month and had met no one in the inhospitable city.

    A. unfriendly B. uncomfortable C. unhealthy D. enormous

    8. I found a secluded area where no man or animal could be seen for miles around.

    A. cool B. isolated C. quiet D. noisy

    9. The archaeologist spent years studying and searching for remains of the Chinese civilization.

    A. one who studies the mind B. one who studies cultures

    C. one who studies the body D. one who studies animals

    10. CARDIFF, Wales (De, 15) – Poets, singers and musicians from across the globe gathered Wales to celebrate the tradition of storytelling. “It came out of a group of people who wanted to reconnect with traditions, and as all the Welsh are storytellers, it was in good hands here.” Ambrose said.

    A. controlled by rich people B. grasped by good storytellers

    C. taken good care of D. protected by kind people

    11. Eleven people were wounded, several seriously. When the two gunmen walked into the crowded Rising Sun Pub in Greysteel, some 120 kilometers northeast of Belfast, carrying guns. It is said that they went near a frightened teenage girl and made the old “trick or treat” greeting that children world-widely use to get sweets from their neighbors. “I don’t think that’s funny.” She replied, then she was shot down. A. usually used by children to get sweets from others

    B. a warning used by criminals to snatch something

    C. a secret was used by protestant gunman to kill somebody

    D. an old saying, but not used now

    12. Beauty has always been regarded as something praiseworthy. Almost everyone thinks attractive people are happier and healthier, have better marriages and have more respectable jobs. Personal advisors give them better advice for finding jobs. Even judges are softer on attractive defendants. But in the executive circle, beauty can become a liability.

    A. disadvantage B. advantage C. misfortune D. trouble

    13. If a language has a large number of speakers or if it is very old, there may be differences in the way it is spoken in different areas. That is, the language may have several dialects. Chinese is a good example of dialect differences. Chinese has been spoken for thousands of years by millions of speakers. The differences between the dialects of Chinese are so great that speakers of Chinese from some parts of China cannot understand speakers from other parts.

    A. a special language spoken by Chinese

    B. the sign used by the Chinese people in a special area

    C. the difference between the old and today’s Chinese

    D. the form of a language used in one part of the country

    14. If you are a recent social graduate who has had to listen about unemployment from your computer major classmates, you may have had the last laugh. There are many advantages for the social science major because this high-tech “Information Age” demands people who are flexible and who have good communication skills.

    By saying that “You may have had the last laugh,” the author means that you

    may have ______________.

    A. shared the jokes with computer majors

    B. earned as much as computer majors

    C. found jobs more easily than computer majors

    D. stopped joking about computer majors

    15. A traditional Chinese proverb says, “The worst ingratitude towards one’s parents is not to have a child.” But such thinking is being abandoned in the cities. A March survey of nearly 720 women in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Chengdu suggested that nearly one-fifth do not want any children.

    The underlined word “abandoned” means ________ in this passage.

    A. accepted B. discussed C. given up D. criticized

    16. Finally, although some social science majors may still find it more difficult than their technically trained classmates to land the first job, recent graduates report that they don’t regret their choice of study.

    The underlined word “land” probably means ____________.

    A. keep for some time B. successfully get

    C. immediately start D. lose regretfully

    17. It seems that some people go out of their way to get into trouble. That’s more or less what happened the night that Nashville Police Officer Floyd Hyde was on duty. “I was on the way to a personal-injury accident in West Nashville. As I got onto Highway 40, blue lights and sirens going, I fell in behind a Gold Pontiac Firebird that suddenly seemed to take off quickly down the highway. The driver somehow panicked at the sight of me. He was going more than a hundred miles an hour and began passing cars on the shoulder.”

    The meaning of “panicked” is related to ___________.

    A. shame B. hate C. anger D. fear

    18. In my mind, attending my dream university would be the only way to realize my dream of becoming ass writer. My parents understood how I felt. They told me that even though it would be a financial problem, I could go wherever I would be happiest. But as I was always careful with money, I wasn’t sure what to do. One of the schools that offered me a full ride had an information dinner one night in the spring. Considering my parents’ financial difficulties, I decided to drive the 45 minutes and attend. At first, all I had planned to do was smile politely, eat free food, and listen quietly. But I surprised myself.

    In the passage, “offered me a full ride” can be replaced by “__________”.

    A. would pay for transport to the school

    B. would show me around the campus

    C. would offer free meals at all events

    D. would charge me nothing for tuition

    19. An 18th – century statesman Edmund Burke once said, “All that is needed for the success of a misguided cause is that good people do nothing.” One such cause now seeks to end biomedical research because of the theory that animals have rights to decide whether to be used in research. Scientists need to respond forcefully to animal rights advocates, whose argument are puzzling the public and threaten advances in health knowledge and care. Leaders of the animal rights movement attack biomedical research because it depends on public funding, and few people understand the process of health care research. Hearing the false reports of cruelty to animals in research settings, many are puzzled that anyone would harm an animal on purpose.

    The underlined word “threaten” in paragraph 1 means __________.

    A. doing a favor B. drawing attention to

    C. causing a danger to D. making their way to

    20. One country received its second-place medals with visible anger after the hockey final. There had been noisy scenes at the hockey match, the losers objecting to the final decisions. They were sure that one of their goals should not have been disallowed and that their opponent victory was unfair. Their manager was in great anger when he said, “This wasn’t hockey. Hockey and the International Hockey Federation are finished.” The president of the Federation said later that such behavior could result in the suspension of the term for at least three years.

    What did the manager mean by saying, “Hockey and the International Hockey Federation are finished?”

    A. His team would no longer take part in international games.

    B. Hockey and the Federation are both ruined by the unfair decisions.

    C. There should be no more Hockey matches organized by the Federation.

    D. The Federation should break up

    1-5BABBC 6-10CABBC 11-15AADCC 16-20BDDCB

    2006年高考备考阅读中的主旨大意题练习

    1. Grown-ups know that people and objects are solid. At the movies, we know that if we reach out to touch Tom Cruise, all we will feel is air. But does a baby have this understanding?

    To see whether babies know objects are solid, T. Bower designed a method for projecting an optical illusion of a hanging ball. His plan was to first give babies a real ball, one they could reach out and touch, and then to show them the illusion. If they know that objects are solid and they reached out for the illusion and found empty air, they could be expected to show surprise in their faces and movements. All the 16-to 24-week-old babies tested were surprised when they reached for the illusion and found that the ball was not there.

    The passage is mainly about _______________.

    . A. babies’ sense of sight B. effects of experiments on babies

    C. babies’ understanding of objects D. different tests on babies’ feelings

    2. That night, the man of his own village came to school. For a while no one said anything. At last Carlos spoke, “We want to thank you for being in our village,” he said. “We want to thank you for teaching our children.” Ed looked at him. “I like

    teaching your children,” he said. “Then please don’t leave us,” Carlos said.

    Ed understood. Now he knew why the men were there. They had heard Ed talk about other village. They thought he was going there to teach.

    “But I am not leaving,” Ed said, “This is my home as long as I’m in Educator. John F. Kennedy No. 1 is my school.”

    What’s the main idea of this passage?

    A. The school Ed had visited was a great school.

    B. The men of the village wanted to thank Ed.

    C. Ed liked teaching the children of the village he lived in.

    D. Ed was loved and respected by the villagers of the village he worked in.

    3. Tigers are founded in many Asian countries. In the forest and grasslands, a tiger is hard to see. The sunlight is shining through leaves and branches and makes patches of bright light and shadow. A tiger’s golden colored coat with its dark strips is not easily seen for its hair is the same color as the blades of yellowish grass and patches of deep shadow. This camouflage is very important because tigers are hunters. If other animals could see a tiger coming, they would quickly run away. The tiger has very strong, sharp teeth which are used for seizing and eating the animals it catches. A tiger’s chief foods are deer, wild pigs and other small animals, but it will also kill cows. Tigers usually hunt and eat at night, and during the day they lie eating, hidden in the tall grass.

    The best title for this passage is _______________.

    A. Tigers and Other Small Animals B. Something about tigers

    C. Tigers’ camouflage D. How tigers Live

    4. A child who stays up too late is often too tired to be successful in school. A

    child who is allowed to eat anything he wishes may have bad teeth and even

    suffer from malnutrition; Children who are rude and disorderly often suffer pangs

    of guilt. Children who are discipline are happy children. They develop in an

    atmosphere where they know exactly what is expected of them. This provides

    them with a sense of order, a feeling of security.

    Which sentence best expresses the main idea?

    A. Any child who is brought up well will become a successful and happy child.

    B. If a child goes to bed very late, he will not study well at school because of tiredness.

    C. If a child eats whatever he likes, he will not study well at school because of tiredness.

    D. Good education will give a child a sense of order and a feeling of security.

    5. A sense of humor is just one of the many things shared by Alfred and Anthony Melillo, 64-year-old twin brothers from East Haven who made history in February 2002. On Christmas Eve,1992, Anthony had a heart transplant from a 21-year-old donor. Two days before Valentine’s Day in 2002, Alfred received a 19-year-old heart, marking the first time on record that twin adults each received heart transplants.

    “I’m 15 minutes older than him, but now I am younger because of my heart

    and I’m not going to respect him,” Alfred said with a grin, pointing to his brother while talking to a roomful reporters, who laughed frequently at their jokes.

    This article is mainly about ____________.

    A. the danger of heart transplant surgery

    B. becoming young by getting a new heart

    C. the effect of genetic on the heart

    D. the twin brothers who received heart transplants

    .

    Why did Alfred say, “I’m 15 minutes older than him, but I’m younger because of my heart?”

    A. His heart transplant surgery was more successful than Anthony’s.

    B. His recovery from the heart surgery was faster than Anthony’s.

    C. His exercise program was better than Anthony’s.

    D. His new heart was younger than Anthony’s.

    6. Do you know what was school teachers expected to do over one hundred years ago? Firstly they had to be expert in the subject they taught and they had to be good at teaching. Secondly, besides their teaching duties, they had to provide their students with different services. They should care for the oil lamps, took care of the fire, and supply their students with sharp pencils. Thirdly, after a long day in the classroom, they were expected to spend some time every evening reading the Bible. Women teachers were not permitted to marry and barbershops were off limits to men teachers. Of course, smoking tobacco and drinking alcohol were strictly forbidden. It is believed that some teachers either left their jobs or were dismissed from schools when they were found to have broken the above mentioned discipline.

    Which statement expresses the main idea?

    A. Teachers were foolish for performing menial tasks.

    B. The teaching profession demanded total dedication and good teaching ability.

    C. Teachers were very religious in Jesus Christ.

    D. Teachers were not to be trusted with tobacco and alcohol.

    The paragraph could be titled _____.

    A. Other Times, Other Places B. Seeing Is Believing

    C. Other Times, Other Customs D. The Truth Will Out

    7. Nomads are people who have no fixed homes but move from place to place. Hunting peoples, such as the Bushmen, Pygmies and Australian aborigines move in search of large animal population. Pastoral nomads, in the Middle East and Central Asia, move with the seasons to find pasture for their animals. Other patrol peoples, also dependent on the seasons, grow crops but move to other places after their crops need no attention. Some agricultural workers, in the United States particularly, follow a nomadic life also, going northward during the growing and harvesting season and returning to the warmer southern regions in the winter. Generally speaking, the nomads’ movements are regulated by the seasons and effects of the season on plants and animal lives.

    Which of the following statements best expresses the main idea of the paragraph?

    A. There are still some nomadic peoples left in the modern world.

    B. In search of large animal population, nomads move from one place to another.

    C. Seasons and their effects on plants and animal lives regulate nomads’ movements.

    D. Bushmen, Pygmies and Australian aborigines are nomadic peoples.

    The best title of the paragraph could be ________________.

    A. Where There Is a Large Animal Population, There Are Nomads

    B. Characters of Nomads

    C. Two Decisive Factors of Nomads’ Movements

    D. Some American Agricultural Workers – Nomadic Peoples of New Era

    8. Newspapers do not always report the facts fairly and truly. For example, a

    newspaper in a southern state may devote very little space to an item on racial

    injustice. On the other hand, a newspaper from the Northeast might give wide

    coverage to such problem in other parts of the nation and fail to report on local

    racial troubles. In this way readers can be misled. They may be fooled into

    believing that prejudice is a regional problem and fail to realize that racism knows no boundary. Though all newspapers consider themselves to be very fair and to report everything based on very true facts, their reports are unfounded occasionally.

    This passage is a paragraph __________________.

    A. which has no topic sentence B. with its first sentence as the topic

    C. with its last sentence as the topic D. both B and C

    The careful newspaper reader should aware that ________________________.

    A. most news stories cannot be believed

    B. some newspapers present only one side of the story

    C. many newspapers attempt to cheat their readers

    D. government control of the news industry is needed

    The reporting policies of newspapers _ ____________________.

    A. reflect the needs of the public

    B. should support the views of local readers

    C. can be made to serve private interests

    D. should be under the control of taxpayers

    The faulty news reporting described in the passage is ___________________.

    A. the exception to general practice

    B. a threat to freedom of the press

    C. an insult to journalism

    D. a dangerous and wide spread abuse

    1 c 2 c 3 d 4 d 5 d d 6 b c 致谢

    在我的毕业论文完成之际,我向所有在本文撰写过程中给予我支持、帮助和鼓励的人们表示我深深的谢意。

    首先感谢我的导师文子娟老师。论文开题时文老师给了我宝贵的建议和指导。正是在文老师的帮助和引导下,我对第三方物流研究产生了浓厚的兴趣。在论文的写作中文老师给我提出了许多的宝贵建议,使本文得以顺利完成。文老师勇于创新的治学态度、严谨的治学作风,使我受益匪浅。

    感谢闽江学院的老师们,在学习期间给予我的教育和培养,借此机会一并表示深深的感谢。

    另外,感谢给予我的帮助的同学、朋友,感谢我的父母,我人生的每一段历程都凝聚着他们的心血。

    第3篇: 英语阅读理解猜词技巧和能力现状调查

    英语阅读理解解题技巧:猜词秀

    在阅读的时候,常常会遇到一些生词,影响我们的阅读速度,其实大部分生词的意思都可以通过上下文的关系猜出来,下面就介绍一些猜词的技巧:

    1.通过因果关系猜词 。

    通过因果关系猜词,首先是找出生词与上下文之间的逻辑关系,然后才能猜词。

    2.通过同义词和反义词的关系猜词 
    通过同义词猜词,一是要看由and或or连接的同义词词组,

    3.通过描述猜词 
    描述即作者为帮助读者更深更感性地了解某人或某物而对该人或该物作出的外在相貌或内在特征的描写。

    4.通读全文,掌握大意

    【解题技巧】

     (一)阅读短文时,要做到边阅读、边思考、边标记。把文 中你认为比较重要的信息用笔画一下。目的是能快捷地把题目与文中相关的信息加以比较,从而作出正确的判断。
       
    (二)对较长的文章,应将题目通览一遍,然后带着问题阅读有关材料。
       
    (三)阅读材料时要快中求准,做阅读理解题目时要慢中求稳。采用“意群注视 法”,即一组词一组词地默看,能较快地读完短文、较准确地理解短文意思。做题目时,为求稳妥,必须慎重考虑,不要轻易落笔,否则容易出错。
       
    (四)判断要有根据,推理要顺乎作者意图,对于推断性或评价性之类的阅读理解题目,在材料中是找不到现成答案的,必须通读全篇,对所获信息加以筛选、提炼、推断,对作者的思想倾向,对文中提及的人物或事件可能产生的结尾等,加以综合评估后才能得出正确结论。

    (五)遇到生词或难解的句子不要慌张,根据上下文的意思能够得出正确的理解。阅读材料中,不会乱出现生词,但不排除有不影响答题的生词,同时也不排除有猜测生词的题目出现,因为猜测词义也是阅读能力的体现。阅读理解题在设计过程中已充分考虑到了生词对答题的影响,但对于那些对答题影响不大的生词,如人名、地名等,一般不注汉语,只要能判断出那些生词的类别就可以了,不必弄清楚其准确含义。
      
      【解题思路】
      (一)通读作文,了解大意,首要的问题是读懂阅读材料,从材料中捕捉到文中的各种信息。既要留意短文中的主要信息,还要留意某个细节,某个生词在文中的确切含义等。
       
      (二)围绕题干,细读明辨。读懂了短文,获取了文中信息之后,便开始答题。首先,要看清内容要求。其题涉及的内容都会在文中直接或间接地体现出来。其次,要进行细致的推理和判断。有些题目很难或无法从所给材料中作出明确判断,这时,要统观全文,在理解文字表面意思的基础上进行深入分析、推理,或结合文章主题或按常识进行思考、判断,从而推断出答案。
       
      (三)为求稳妥,复核检查,在完成全部答案后,还必须快速地、有针对性地,重读一遍短文,特别要留意与题目相关的文字。
       
       (四)读完一篇文章后,要回味一番对文章的段落结构,中心思想,人物事件,论点论据要做到心中有数。对不清楚的地方可以再看几次。要留心关键词句,注意弦外之音。对文章的评价分析,一定要坚持“词不离句,句不离篇”,要理解文章作者的原意,而不能按你自己的意愿去想当然。切记:一想当然,就会出错。如果文章太长,你可以先把文章后面的问题看一遍,带着问题去看文章。这样可以帮助你去掉杂念,提高阅读速度和解题的正确性。要善于找关键句,特别要注意文章的第一段和最后一段的头一句话,往往就是关键句,可以帮助你掌握文章的全貌,理解文章的主题。此外,还应该细读文章,因为有时的试题是考细节。可以边读边用铅笔做点标记,把有关的人物,事件,时间,地点,原因(即五个W,who,what,when,where,why)划出来。凡逢人物就圈起来,看完一数,有几个圈就是几个人,一目了然。

    第4篇: 英语阅读理解猜词技巧和能力现状调查

    高中英语阅读理解猜词题的解题技巧

    摘要:
    本文针对高中阅读理解中的猜词题介绍了几种做题方法,并列举了一些实例进行了分析。

    关键词:猜词题 猜词义 做题方法

    在英语学习中,我们会遇到许多生词。这时,也不必立即翻阅字典。我们可以利用语境,根据前后词、句子、以及相关信息推测、判断生词的词义。

    高中英语阅读理解题中,我们经常碰到猜测词义的题型。在做这类题时,我们可以利用以下一些方法:

    一 根据解释猜词义

    在文章中,作者为了更好的表达思想,对一些重要的概念、难懂的术语或词汇等要进行进一步的更明确的解释。这些解释提供的信息具有明确的针对性,我们可以利用它们比较容易地猜出词义。

    1、根据定义猜测词义

    如果句子或段落是生词的定义,理解句子或段落本身就是词语的含义。例如:The rooster is the national emblem of France thanks to a wordplay: the Latin word meaning coq ,or rooster. rooster 其实是对coq解释,因此两者的意思都为cock。

    2、根据同位语、定语猜测词义

    虽然同位语、定语不如定义那样严谨、详细,但是提供的信息足以使阅读者猜出生词词义。例如, 同位语in fact, only about 80 ocelots, an endangered wild cat, exist in the U.S. today.此例中,我们不难看出an endangered wild cat是ocelot 的同位语,也不难看出ocelot的意思。在构成同位关系的两部分之间多用逗号连接,有时也使用破折号、冒号、分号、引号和括号等。又如Towards the evening, there comes the grand finale of the opening day ,an extremely exciting horserace.从an exciting horserace ,towards the evening ,of the opening day 等判断,应该是首日的最后一场的压台戏出场了。

    需要注意的是:同位语前还常有or, similarly, that is to say, in other words, namely, or other, say i.e. 等副词或短语出现。在定语从句There are not many factories in Orkney, just two distilleries which make whisky and a few small …中,根据从句which make whisky 可以判断distillery 是a place where wine is made。

    3、根据举例猜测词义

    恰当的举例能够提供猜测生词的重要线索,例如:his family took him ,as a boy, hunting and fishing trips and so made him know early the kinds of virtues, such as courage and endurance, which were later shown in his stories. 句中“courage ”和“endurance(忍耐)”是生词的实例,通过它们我们可以猜出virtues的大致词义“good quality (美德)”。

    二 根据上下文内在关系猜词义

    根据上下文内在关系猜词义是指运用语言知识分析和判断相关信息之间存在的逻辑关系,然后根据逻辑关系推断生词词义或大致义域。这也是在完型填空题中常用的方法。

    1、根据上下文的情景猜测词义

    如:But Portam didn’t find modeling very interesting and instead tried to gain a career in acting. She made her debut at age 13 as the girl friend of … …”我们根据上文“…tried to gain a career in acting”说明追求表演有了结果,所以debut应该是“首次登台表演”的意思。再如Lack of parent willpower may contribute more to juvenile obesity than under-exercising or overeating,根据more…than under-exercising or overeating 等语境可判断“juvenile obesity” 意为”childhood overweight”。

    2、根据对比关系猜测词义

    在一个句子或段落中,有对两个事物或现象进行对比性的描述,我们可以根据生词或难词的反义或近义关系的词进行猜测。例如:Another suggestion for consumers is to buy generic items instead of famous brands.根据famous brands 可以轻易给generic items (一般商品)下定义。

    3、根据因果关系猜测词义

    在句子或段落种,若两个事物、现象之间构成因果关系,我们可以根据这种逻辑关系 推知生词词义。例如:
    The survey also show … …elements which are crucial to their physical development——magnesium, copper, calcium, iron and zinc. 我们根据上文 “…after a study revealed that unscientific ways of feeding babies and a lack of trace elements are the two biggest threats to youngsters’ health.”可以看出这“五种元素”对孩子的身体发展是重要的。所以crucial 的意思应和important接近。

    4、根据同义词的替代关系猜测词义

    在句子或段落中,我们可以利用熟悉的词语,根据语言环境推断生词词义。例如:tens of thousands of tourists visit New York every year. The tourists come to see the skyscrapers of Manhattan. The city is famous for its many tall buildings. many tall buildings应该是skyscrapers的同义词,有替代关系。

    三 根据外部相关因素猜词语

    外部相关因素是指篇章(句子或段落)以外的其他知识。我们在依靠分析篇章的上下文内在关系无法猜出词义时,就需要运用生活经验和普通常识来确定词义。例如:Book lovers of all ages say the best thing about winter is cuddling up under a blanket with a warm drink in one hand and a good novel in the other.从under a blanket可以常识性地得出“看书” 的状态应该是躺着,所以应选择“to lie close and comfortably” 选项。又如:One night, six of us decided to borrow bikes from the hotel and ride around Beijing after dark. Since there were only three bikes we had to double up.根据six of us和only three bikes,在联系到double的本义 “双”,就可以判断“double up” 意思为“to share a bike” 即两人合骑一辆自行车。我们还可以依靠构词法方面的知识, 从生词(派生词或复合词)本身猜测词义,即根据派生词的前缀后缀,或根据复合词的各部分的意思猜测词义等。

    总之,利用各种已知信息进行推测、判断词义是一项重要的做阅读理解题,乃至完型填空题的方法,也是我们平时阅读文章时运用的常用技能。我们可以灵活地综合运用上面提到的几种解题方法,排除生词的障碍,顺利地理解文章的思想内容,提高阅读速度,以及做出相关的题型。

    参考文献

    1 教育部:《全日制义务教育普通高级中学英语课程标准(实验稿)》,北京师范大学出版社,2001年

    2 梁大鹏 王俊杰 :《收获季节(英语)》,光明日报出版社,2006年3月

    (作者:毕康宏 地址:甘肃康县一中 邮编:746500 Email: bikanghong@sina.com )

    第5篇: 英语阅读理解猜词技巧和能力现状调查

    英语阅读理解中的猜词悟意技巧与策略

    在英语阅读中我们都会碰到这种情况:当我们遇到不认识的生词时,却照样能读懂句子,并且能够领悟出该词的意思。这是因为,有一定阅读技巧的读者也都具有一定的猜词悟意能力,即:Agoodreaderisagoodguesser.近年来各类阅读理解题的长度和题量都在逐年增加,如不能快速准确理解把握这些生词,势必会降低做题的质量。因此,猜词能力的培养和技巧与策略的习得显得尤为重要。
    猜测词义是根据单词所在的上下文的内容及构词的常识揣度词义的一种阅读技能。如果能够养成猜词悟意的习惯,将有助于提高英语阅读速度和理解准确度、扩大词汇量及增强学生学习英语的兴趣和信心。现根据笔者在多年普通高考和高等学校英语应用能力考试A、B级辅导过程中使用过的教学实例,介绍较为常见的十种猜词悟意技巧与策略:一、根据定义句表明词义
    例1Annealingisawayofmakingmetalsofterbyheatingandlettingitcoolveryslowly.
    annealing虽是生词,但根据is引出的定义,即表语部分提供的信息“使金属加热后冷却变软的一种方法”,可确定其意义为“退火”。
    例2Kleptomaniaisanillnessofthemindthatgives

    apersonthedesiretosteal.
    通过anillnessofthemind…tosteal及全文下面的举例解释,另从所给选项中得出desire与wish意义相符后,不难猜出kleptomania的意思是“盗窃癖”。
    定义句通常由be,mean,define,call,refer等词引导。二、利用同位语或定语从句暗示词义
    例1Anorphanageisahomefororphans,thechildrenwithoutparents.
    本句中先用同位语thechildrenwithoutparents暗示了orphans(孤儿)的词义,又用is引出的定义句明确了orphanage(孤儿院的意义。
    例2NearbyistheIndianapolisracecourse,wherethenation’smostfamouscarraceisheldeachyearonMay30th.
    以where引导的定语从句为线索,暗示了course应是汽车赛举行的地方。所以排除“过程”、“课程”、“航程”,而将该词定义为“跑道”。
    同位语常用逗号、破折号、插入语或thatis等提示;
    定语从句则常常以that,which,who,when,where,why等关系代词、副词引导。
    三、利用标点符号提示词义
    例1Therearetwotypesoffat:externalfat(fatunder

    theskinandinternalfat(fatinsidethebodywall.冒号引出两种类型的“脂肪”,括号内的短语分别是externalfat(皮下脂肪)和internalfat(体内脂肪)的具体解释。
    例2Quietly,thegrayingofAmericahasmadeusaverydifferentsociety―oneinwhichpeoplehaveaquitedifferentideaofwhatkindofbehaviorissuitableatvariousages.
    不定代词one在文中society及破折号后,它所指代的显而易见就是前面的society,因为破折号说明后面的部分就是前面相应部分的同位语或解释说明。可以担当此类提示的标点符号常有破折号、逗号、冒号、括号等。四、利用重述表达词义
    例1Numberssuchas1,2,3,75,180and3600arecalledwholenumbers,orintegers.
    信号词or表明wholenumbers与integers同义,由前者可推出后者亦意为“整数”。
    例2Youlookfitandhealthytome.
    and连接的fit与healthy意义相同――“健康的”。重述常以or,and,that’stosay,inotherwords等信号词引出。五、利用举例说明词义
    例1Todayyoungcoupleswhoarejuststartingtheir

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